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Yokohama in 2030: Envisioning 1.5-Degree Lifestyles

  • Published on February 18, 2022

'Yokohama in 2030: Envisioning 1.5-Degree Lifestyles' shares findings of the ‘Envisioning Future Low-Carbon Lifestyles and Transitioning Instruments’ demonstration project, 2019-2021. This project was implemented under the United Nations’ One Planet network and funded by the Government of Japan through its contribution to the 10YFP Trust Fund, administered by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). This project is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), Japan, in collaboration with Akatu Institute, Brazil; Chulalongkorn University, Thailand; ICLEI Africa, South Africa; Swechha, India; Hot or Cool Institute, Germany; ICLEI, Japan; Science Communications and Research Institute (SCRI), Japan; D-mat, Finland; National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan.

Yokohama in 2030 recommends plausible options for 1.5-Degree Lifestyles (1.5°C Lifestyles) and their supporting measures, towards realising the globally unified 1.5°C target of 2.5 t-CO2e/capita/year, compatible with the Paris Agreement’s target of limiting global warming to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. Based on the assessment of consumption data across housing, food, mobility, goods, services and leisure, the average lifestyle carbon footprint in Yokohama is 7.1t-CO2e/capita/year, around Japan’s national average, but above the global average at 4.3t-CO2e/ capita/year. The report found that in Yokohama, the housing domain accounts for the largest carbon footprint, followed by food, mobility, goods, services and leisure. 

Reduction from 7.1t-CO2e/capita/year lifestyle carbon footprint to 2.5 t-CO2e/capita/year is feasible only through a combination of production and consumption side measures. The report proposed consumption side measures can reduce Yokohama’s average lifestyle carbon footprint from 7.1t-CO2e/capita/year to 3.9t-CO2e/capita/year (-45%), if we assume no improvements in renewable energy share and environmental efficiency from the current levels. We identified 65-actionable lifestyle change options and estimated their carbon footprint reduction potential based on consumption amount and energy intensity for production across housing, mobility, food, goods, services and leisure domains.

The report argues that it is vital to reduce the average lifestyle carbon footprint of citizens below the 2030 target (2.5tCO2e/yr per person). However, it is neither realistic nor desirable to expect all citizens to take the carbon footprint reduction actions described in the report, regardless of their different standards of living and diversity of needs such as mobility, housing and food.


Yokohama in 2030 accentuates that the 2.5 t-CO2e/capita/ year target is very ambitious but can be achieved if all the stakeholders take adequate actions in a collaborative manner. It aims to provide ideas towards realising a 1.5°C Lifestyle for diverse citizens in many respects and the adoption rates are just indicative figures, not future projections or targets.

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