Europe's Buildings under the Microscope

As there is a lack of comprehensive data on buildings at European level, BPIE compiled and analysed date from all 27 EU Member States as well as Norway and Switzerland to provide a clear picture of the European building stock. The collected data allowed to determine the energy and CO2 saving potential of Europe's buildings and to model a variety of scenarios for the systematic renovation of the European building stock until 2050.

The objective is to put European policy making on a more solid basis by providing the statistics for a fact-based discussion on how to leverage the energy saving potential of EU buildings while maximising environmental, economic, and social benefits.

The study was launched on October 11 in the context of the Renovate Europe Day, an industry-led initiative calling for a higher percentage of deep renovations up until 2050 (www.renovate-europe.eu). The report provides the analytical basis for a five-year campaign, (“Renovate Europe”), which was kick-started that day and is to be continued at Member State level.

Published in 2011 by
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Principles for nearly Zero-Energy Buildings

While the EPBD requires that from 2020 all new buildings are nearly Zero-Energy Buildings (nZEBs), the proposed definition leaves a number of uncertainties, especially on the ambition level of such buildings in terms of energy consumption and CO2 emissions. This study has been elaborated to support the implementation of the re-cast Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) by developing a sustainable, effective and practical nZEB definition for nearly Zero-Energy Buildings.

This report aims to contribute to reaching a common understanding of nZEBs by:

- Providing a starting point for a nZEB definition by analyzing existing concepts and initiatives.
- Lining out main challenges and potential solutions for a nZEB definition.
- Compiling a possible set of principles for nZEBs.
- Applying such principles on reference buildings and assess related effects.
- Depicting related technological, financial and policy implications at EU level, and
- Giving an outlook on necessary further steps towards a successful implementation of nZEBs.

The study is of specific interest for policy makers at EU and Member State level, as well as for the research community.

Published in 2011 by
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State of Play of Financial Instruments - where Europe stands now

As Europe plans the next steps in improving the energy performance of buildings, BPIE has undertaken this review to present key facts from the use of financial instruments across Europe. The paper presents an overview of the various financial schemes in place dedicated to the energy efficient renovation of buildings in 2011. It makes a quantitative analysis of the different financing mechanisms and provides comparisons on specific aspects such as the level of financial support and ambition with respect to the targeted energy consumption of the renovated building. It provides also information on the type of buildings concerned and renovation measures supported by the financial schemes.

This review of the available financial instruments shows that there is still more to learn from the current measures in place and that there is in general a strong need for better defining and sharing of best practice.

Published in 2012 by
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A Guide to Developing Strategies for Building Energy Renovation

BPIE has produced a guide to support the EU Member States draft the first version of their renovation strategies to be published by April 30th 2014.

Deep renovations are specifically encouraged by the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED, 2012/27/EU) through the requirement for Member States to establish long term strategies for the renovation of national building stocks covering all building types, including residential and non-residential buildings, whether in private, public or mixed ownership. Alongside the EED, the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD, 2010/31/EU), recast in 2010, sets minimum energy performance standards for buildings undergoing renovation. Together, the EED and EPBD provide a framework for Member States to drive the reduction of energy use in buildings, thereby delivering a range of economic, environmental, societal and energy security benefits.

This guide is a template that can be used for strategy development, setting out the multiple benefits arising from improving the energy performance of buildings. It highlights the existence of numerous challenges to the achievement of the potential benefits. It argues for Member States to be visionary in setting out a long term strategy for building stock renovation: it is vital that national renovation strategies are ambitious in their scope and coverage, and that they take full advantage of the state of the art, in terms of technology, policy and institutional arrangements. The strategy development process is described in details, including a description of the five key phases and a suggested list of actions MS could take to underpin the strategy.

Published in 2013 by
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Implementing the cost-optimal methodology in EU countries

The recast Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD, 2010/31/EU) requires Member States to introduce minimum energy performance requirements for buildings, building elements and technical building systems and set these requirements based on a cost-optimal methodology. This methodology was established on the Cost-Optimality Commission Delegated Regulation (2010/31/EU), while an additional guidance document on how to implement the methodology at the national level was published by the EU Commission in April 2012. Nevertheless, the EU regulation and guidelines provide Member States a very large degree of flexibility.

BPIE intends to provide with this report additional practical examples on how to effectively implement the cost-optimal methodology at national level. The main goal is to evaluate the implications of different critical parameters, as well as to share the good practices across EU countries.

Three case studies are delivered with the support of consultants from Austria (e-sieben), Germany (IWU) and Poland (BuildDesk), focusing on cost-optimal calculations for multi-family and / or single-family buildings. The report and case studies demonstrate how ambitious yet affordable cost-optimal energy performance requirements for buildings can be defined and how the transition towards nearly Zero-Energy Buildings (nZEBs) can be supported.

Published in 2013 by
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Implementing nearly Zero-Energy Buildings (nZEB) in Romania – Towards a definition and roadmap

This report is part of a BPIE research study, which developed ambitious roadmaps for Poland, Romania and Bulgaria. These roadmaps are expected to help the countries progress towards the implementation of nearly Zero-Energy Buildings and reduce the national level of energy consumption and related carbon emissions.

The study covering Romania aims to actively support this process in the country by providing a technical and economic analysis for developing a nZEB definition and implementation plan. Based on a country dataset, different technological options are simulated for improving the energy performance of offices as well as single and multi-family buildings. BPIE also recommends a holistic policy approach which can deliver on energy, climate and economic goals.

The current study is based on the previous BPIE report “Principles for nearly Zero-Energy Buildings”, published in 2011.

Published in 2012 by
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Implementing nearly Zero-Energy Buildings (nZEB) in Poland

This report is part of a BPIE research study, which developed ambitious roadmaps for Poland, Romania and Bulgaria. These roadmaps are expected to help the countries progress towards the implementation of nearly Zero-Energy Buildings and reduce the national level of energy consumption and related carbon emissions.

The study covering Poland aims to actively support this process in the country by providing a technical and economic analysis for developing a nZEB definition and implementation plan. Based on a country dataset, different technological options are simulated for improving the energy performance of offices as well as single and multi-family buildings. BPIE also recommends a holistic policy approach which can deliver on energy, climate and economic goals.

The current study is based on the previous BPIE report “Principles for nearly Zero-Energy Buildings”, published in 2011.

Published in 2012 by
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Implementing nearly Zero-Energy Buildings (nZEB) in Bulgaria - Towards a definition and roadmap

This report is part of a BPIE research study, which developed ambitious roadmaps for Poland, Romania and Bulgaria. These roadmaps are expected to help the countries progress towards the implementation of nearly Zero-Energy Buildings and reduce the national level of energy consumption and related carbon emissions.

The study covering Bulgaria aims to actively support this process in the country by providing a technical and economic analysis for developing a nZEB definition and implementation plan. Based on a country dataset, different technological options are simulated for improving the energy performance of offices as well as single and multi-family buildings. BPIE also recommends a holistic policy approach which can deliver on energy, climate and economic goals.

The current study is based on the previous BPIE report “Principles for nearly Zero-Energy Buildings”, published in 2011.

Published in 2012 by
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Boosting Building Renovation: an overview of good practices

Best practice cases in policy implementation from Europe and beyond can encourage future programme development and their execution on the ground. At the end of September 2013, the French government reaffirmed its ambitions to significantly increase building renovation rates, with the overall goal to refurbish 500 000 buildings annually by 2017.

To support the French debate on renovation roadmaps, the French NGO CLER commissioned BPIE to produce a report on successful building renovation programmes, as an overview of good practices in Europe and around the globe. This report was produced to complement a national consultation on the subject, with many stakeholders, from building industry and real-estate associations, environmental organisations, consulting firms and ministries (Housing and Environment / Energy).

The focus of this study is on existing (or planned) regulations and programmes in selected countries, including long-term plans for building refurbishment, adopted by EU member states and regions. The report provides several guiding principles that EU member states should consider when developing ambitious renovation plans as required under the EU's Energy Efficiency Directive.

Published in 2013 by
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Renovating Romania - A strategy for the energy renovation of Romania's building stock

The Energy Efficiency Directive required all Member States to report their national renovation strategies by April 30, 2014 (Article 4). Renovating Romania was developed to assist the Romanian Government in fulfilling its commitment and outlines scenarios as well as policy recommendations for the renovation of Romania's building stock.

An ambitious reduction target in CO2 emissions from buildings by as much as 80% by 2050 (compared to 2010) is both achievable and desirable in Romania. BPIE found out that this target could be achieved through a combination of energy efficiency measures and widespread deployment of renewable resources in and on buildings, in a multiphase approach described in the study. This strategy is designed to stimulate debate among stakeholders, with a view to securing a broad consensus around the future direction of policies and initiatives addressing building energy performance in Romania.

The study is split into two parts, the first outlines the actual strategy for the energy renovation of the Romanian building stock, and the second part showcases the results of the IEE project ENTRANZE on modelling selected policy sets for Romania as well as pathways to 2030 for the renovation of existing buildings.

Published in 2014 by
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Alleviating Fuel Poverty in the EU

Fuel poverty is a major problem for Europe, as millions of people are unable to afford a proper indoor thermal comfort. Despite the fact that there is no common European definition, the importance of the problem as well as the severe health impacts caused by fuel poverty are widely recognised.

This study emphasises that energy subsidies and direct financial support for household heating cannot provide a long-term solution to the fuel poverty problem. However, vigorous energy renovation measures of fuel poor homes can give a long-term answer to fuel poverty. Case studies of EU countries financing measures against fuel poverty indicate that - even though energy efficiency measures have proven to be the most sustainable solution to the fuel poverty problem - they receive lower funding compared to income and fuel price support schemes.

To evaluate the extent of the problem, the study describes the current situation of fuel poverty in Europe using data from Eurostat. The indicators used to measure fuel poverty are referring to the inability of people to keep their home adequately warm, to pay their utility bills and to live in a dwelling without defects (leakages, damp walls, etc.). This study also makes recommendations to achieve the social, environmental and energy goals set by the EU for 2020.

Published in 2014 by
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Setting the 3% target for public buildings renovation - Status of implementation of Art. 5, EED

As of January 2014, Member States have to renovate each year 3% of the total floor area of heated and/or cooled buildings owned and occupied by its central government, to meet at least the minimum energy performance requirements.

BPIE's latest research gathers in a factsheet both the current status of the implementation of Art 5 of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED, 2012/27/EU) as well as summary conclusions.

Six months after the deadline for Member States to submit a formal notification on this article, BPIE analysed the reported approaches. June 24, the information for 7 countries were still missing on the European Commission's official website.

This analysis is the first in a series of factsheets that will focus on Europe's building stock. It supports BPIE's mission to provide useful and reliable facts and data with the aim to improve the energy performance of buildings in Europe and beyond.

Published in 2014 by
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Energy Performance Certificates (EPC) across the EU - Mapping of national approaches

This report explores the national approaches to buildings efficiency certification and finds that Energy Performance Certificates (EPC) could be among the most important drivers of energy performance of the European building stock. However, most Member States are struggling with public acceptance and market-uptake.

The study provides a comprehensive overview of EPC schemes and databases for residential and non-residential buildings across Europe and identifies good practices to make EPC data reliable and accessible. It builds on the findings to elaborate policy recommendations and concludes that data gaps, low reliability due to a lack of quality control and limited access to data are preventing Member States from exploiting the full potential of the schemes.

The report concludes by highlighting the need to strengthen the role of EPCs in national legislations and to increase the monitoring of the EPC scheme compliance both at Member States and European levels. The European Commission should provide guidance for the development of centralised EPC registries, not only to support independent control systems, but most importantly as a tool to map and monitor the national building stock. Finally, comprehensive evaluations of the EPC effectiveness should be done by independent third-parties.

Published in 2014 by
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Renovation strategies of selected EU countries

The Energy Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU) introduced in 2012 an important new dimension to the energy saving in buildings legislative landscape. Article 4 requires Member States, for the first time, to set out national strategies for the renovation of their building stocks, thereby filling a major gap in policy concerning the existing building stock.

The report focuses on 10 Member States (Austria, Belgium (Brussels Capital Region), Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Romania, Spain and UK) that submitted within 3 months of the April 2014 deadline and selected by BPIE for their building stock and climate diversity. The 10 strategies, while giving a spectrum of approaches and activities, do not set a clear, strategic path and most lack bold and determined action plans.

The report scores countries for each of the 5 requirements from Article 4, EED: overview of the national building stock, cost-effective approaches to renovations, policies and measures to stimulate cost-effective deep renovations, forward-looking perspective to guide investment decisions and evidence-based estimate of expected savings and wider benefits. Based on this scoring, BPIE finds that 3 strategies are non-compliant (Austria, Denmark and The Netherlands), 3 are only partially compliant (France, Germany and Brussels Capital Region) and 4 are acceptable but still show potential to improve (Czech Republic, Romania, Spain and the UK). Some strategies include elements which can be considered best practice such as financial support or a wider-stakeholder process, but are weak on other aspects, varying from country to country.

The report concludes that benefits need to be quantified better, not only in terms of energy, carbon and cost savings, but also in terms of economic impact, societal benefits and environmental improvements. Policy packages and support measures need to be developed in more detail to provide effective incentives to invest in deep renovation. It is also suggested that the European Commission should provide more effective guidance and that most strategies should be re-submitted with corrective actions taken.

Published in 2014 by
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Learning to Transform Oneself and Society: Education for Sustainable Living

All around the world groups of informed, skilled and motivated people are striving to
achieve more responsible ways of living. It is recognized that education is essential to
achieve sustainable development for all. There is also a growing recognition that people
everywhere need to acquire the knowledge and skills to change their consumption
behavior and to become more creative and active citizens.
The question today is what policies and practices are needed to facilitate education for
sustainable living and what lessons can be learned from the experiences already taking
place in different countries.
This brochure is the second in a series which focus the formal education system as well
as informal education and provides an overview of policies and practices from diverse
countries to assist further action around the globe.

Published in 2012 by
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Personal Consumption and Climate Change: Active Methodology Toolkit II

This resource entitled ‘Personal Consumption and
Climate Change: Active Methodology Toolkit 2' is the
result of contributions, re"ections and development work
carried out by the PERL Work Group 4a (Active Learning
Methodologies). !e toolkit is part of a series of ‘toolkits' on
the theme of sustainable development and responsible living.

The toolkit is designed to support and encourage teachers,
tutors and lecturers to integrate some of the concepts of
sustainable development into teaching and learning. It
focuses in particular on using photographs and a range of
active teaching and learning approaches and strategies to
explore the themes of:

Published in 2011 by
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Resource Usage: Time as a Resource

This resource entitled Resource Usage - Time as a Resource Images and Objects Active Methodology
Toolkit 4 is a result of contributions, reflections and development work carried out by the PERL Work
Group 4a (Active Learning Methodologies). The toolkit is part of a series of ‘toolkits' on the theme of
sustainable development and responsible living.
The toolkit is designed to support and encourage teachers, tutors and lecturers to integrate some of
the concepts of sustainable development into teaching and learning.%It takes a holistic approach to the
use of resources for future responsible living and involves learning how to anticipate the consequences
of actions, envision a sustainable future and create the steps needed to achieve the vision. A sustainable
future will be built on the choices that are made, and the actions taken, by individuals in their
families and local communities and extend to affect national, international and global resources. The
toolkit focuses on using a range of active teaching and learning approaches and strategies to explore
the themes of:

- the inter-relationship between environmental, economic, social and political resources in
everyday life.
- time as a resource and the ability to think of the future
- critical analysis, planning and decision making in determining personal action.

10 YFP
Sustainable Lifestyles and Education

YouthXchange Guidebook Series: Climate Change and Lifestyles (BROCHURE)

The YouthXchange guidebook on climate change and lifestyles is the first in a series of thematic guidebooks supporting the YouthXchange Initiative. The thematic guidebooks take into account challenges, opportunities, good practices and case studies on global challenges. This new guidebook explores the links between climate change and lifestyles and helps young people consider the actions they might take towards more sustainable lifestyles. Aimed at young people (15-24 year olds) and people working with young people such as educators, teachers, trainers and youth leaders in both developed and developing countries, this guidebook provides scientific, political, economic, social, ethical and cultural perspectives on climate change. It explains complex issues in accessible language supported by facts, graphics images, case studies, and resources. The guidebook includes the following sections: learning as change, climate change and its impacts, living the good life, food and drink, energy control, travel and transport, leisure and entertainment, shopping for stuff, money and jobs, connecting with others and taking action.

Published in 2012 by
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YouthXchange Guidebook Series: Green Skills and Lifestyles

The guidebook connects the discussions and issues of green economy, green jobs, green skills and green societies to young people's everyday lifestyle choices. It seeks to empower young people to critically engage with the complexity of sustainability issues, to form their own opinions, and to determine their own lifestyle responses and their own career choices. It also includes facts and figures, relevant case studies, tips and activities relevant to the green economy and green skills.

Published in 2012 by
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YouthXchang Guidebook Series: Biodiversity and Lifestyles

This guidebook is the third in a series of thematic guidebooks supporting the UNEP/UNESCO YouthXchange Initiative. The Guidebook is designed to help young people familiarize themselves with the dimensions of global biodiversity, cultural diversity as well as help them to develop essential skills while engaging with biodiversity. It aims to provide well-researched insights into the interactions between biodiversity and the lifestyle choices facing young people by explaining the interrelatedness of food, consumption, culture and biodiversity conservation. The guidebook focuses on the learning to preserve biodiversity through responsible lifestyle choices and suggests starting points for engagement and action for young people.

Published in 2014 by
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UNEP/UNESCO YouthXchange Initiative

In 2001, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) created the YouthXchange Initiative to promote sustainable lifestyles among youth (aged 15-24) through education, dialogue, awareness-raising and capacity-building. YouthXchange works with young people, governments, educators, non-governmental organizations, trainers, and youth leaders in more than 50 countries around the world. At the national and local levels, YouthXchange capacity-building activities are secured through a diverse network of partners, and supported by printed YouthXchange publications, such as the flagship YouthXchange Training Kit on Responsible Consumption (translated into more than 20 languages) publication and a bilingual YouthXchange website. In 2011, UNEP and UNESCO started to develop thematic YouthXchange guidebooks, which enable young people to better understand how global issues are connected to their everyday lifestyle choices, as well as regional YouthXchange guidebooks, which are adapted to the realities of the lifestyles of specific regions, with a particular focus on developing and emerging regions

Published in 2014 by
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YouthXchange Climate Change and Lifestyles Guidebook

The guidebook:
• Considers the causes and effects of climate
change and its human impacts and responses,
while connecting them to lifestyle choices
and the technical and social infrastructures of
a society;
• Provides scientific, political, economic,
social, ethical and cultural perspectives on
climate change;
• Explains complex issues in accessible
language supported by facts, graphics,
images, examples and web links;
• Develops the critical skills young people
need to make personal choices to address
the challenges of climate change

Published in 2011 by
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BROCHURE - 10YFP Programme on Sustainable Lifestyles and Education

This report contributed to the overall development of the
Sustainable Lifestyles and Education Programme of the 10-Year
Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and
Production (10YFP) by delivering a better understanding of the
complex relations between lifestyles and sustainability, explaining
the roles of research, policy development, education and civic
action in enabling, strengthening and safeguarding sustainable
lifestyles.

It presents the concept of sustainable lifestyles as understood
today; examines common lifestyles issues and differences
between regions; and presents examples of the trends and
innovations that are in place to address them, with a special focus
on education.

This report also investigates how transformative learning and
change towards sustainable lifestyles can be accelerated and
enhanced through the initiatives of the Sustainable Lifestyles and
Education Programme.

Published in 2014 by
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ABC OF SCP Clarifying Concepts On Sustainable Consumption and Production

This publication “ABC of SCP” aims to clarify the main terms and concepts related to
sustainable consumption and production, and other terms associated with sustainable
development, and the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD). The main
objective is to facilitate dialogue and cooperation on SCP between all stakeholders. This
“ABC of SCP” does not pretend to present globally agreed definitions, but rather in most
cases offers working definitions that may continue to evolve.
SCP is one of the main focus areas of the 18th and 19th sessions of the CSD, during which
a proposal for a 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and
Production will be developed and considered. SCP is also permanently on the agenda of
the CSD, as a cross-cutting issue. We hope that the ABC of SCP can facilitate the CSD
discussions and preparation of the “Rio +20” conference as well as your own work.

Published in 2010 by
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10 YFP
Sustainable Public Procurement

Task Force on Sustainable Lifestyles

This report presents the projects developed
by the Taskforce on Sustainable Lifestyles led by
Sweden from 2005 to 2009, as well as its main
conclusions and recommendations. !is work is part
of a global effort to promote Sustainable Consumption
and Production (SCP), the so-called Marrakech Process
led by the United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP) and the United Nations Department
of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), established
as a response to the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable
Development.

Published in 2014 by
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Consumo Personal y Cambio Climático: Imágenes y Objetos: Metodología Activa Caja de Herramientas 2

Este material educativo, titulado “Consumo Personal y Cambio
Climático: Caja de Herramientas 2 de Metodología Activa” es el
resultado de los aportes, las re!exiones y el trabajo desarrollado
por el Grupo de Trabajo 4a de PERL (Metodologías de Aprendizaje Activo). Esta Caja de Herramientas es parte de una serie de “Cajas
de Herramientas” sobre el tema de desarrollo sostenible y los
estilos de vida responsables.
Esta Caja de Herramientas está diseñada para apoyar y animar a los
maestros, tutores y profesores a integrar algunos de los conceptos
de desarrollo sostenible en la enseñanza y el aprendizaje. Se centra
particularmente en el uso de fotografías y de una amplia gama de
enfoques y estrategias de enseñanza y aprendizaje activos, para
explorar diversos temas como:

10 YFP
Sustainable Lifestyles and Education

China Dream Initiative

The China Dream will reimagine prosperity,
reframe sustainability, and reshape desire in
China. The goal is to catalyze sustainable
habits in the consuming class in China by
baking it into the social norms of a new
personal prosperity.

Published in 2014 by
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Best Practices and Recommendations for Waste Reduction Towards Sustainable Consumption

! is report was developed by Friends of the Earth Japan (FoE Japan) and the Institute for Global Environmental
Strategies (IGES) with updated case studies as an English-language version of the Japanese report “Yori sukunai
shigen de yori yutakana kurashi wo (A Richer Life with Fewer Resources),” published by FoE Japan in March 2013.
! is report was produced for policymakers, experts, NGOs, and local organizations that are involved in 3R policies
in developing countries in Asia as reference for actions to reduce waste. Although there may be cases that are not
necessarily suitable for the current situation in developing countries in Asia, we expect that this paper will be helpful
as a compilation of specific measures to reduce and prevent wastes.

Published in 2013 by
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