GREENING ECONOMIES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION’S EASTERN PARTNERSHIP COUNTRIES

The “Greening Economies in the Eastern Neighbourhood” (EaP GREEN) programme is a means for EaP countries to progress faster on their path to green economy.

The EaP GREEN programme aims at assisting countries in the development and implementation of SPP policies. It increases awareness and builds the capacity of policy makers and procurement managers in the EaP region (and namely the Republic of Moldova, Belarus and Ukraine).

EaP GREEN targets six Eastern neighbours of the European Union: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine, with support provided by the European Commission and four international organisations – OECD, UNECE, UNEP and UNIDO. Additional support is provided by other countries, including Austria, Norway, Switzerland, and the Netherlands.

Published in 2014 by
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Nordic Cooperation: Nordic textile reuse and recycling - Summary and recommendations

Every year 350,000 tonnes of textiles are consumed in the Nordic region, of which only 120,000 tonnes of used textiles are separately collected. This corresponds to about one third of all new textiles put on the market. The three projects The Nordic textile Every kilogram of textiles produced on average corresponds to the emission of 15 kilograms of carbon dioxide. In the current paradigm most textiles are used only for part of their functional lifetime and then sent to incineration and landfill with a wasate of high grade resources.

A Nordic strategy for increased reuse and recycling of textiles as well as An extended producer responsibility (EPR) system and new business models to increase reuse and recycling of textiles in the Nordic region have all aimed for a joint vision for textiles. The vision includes multiple uses during the textile products' entire functional lifetime, whether at one or several owners. Further, it aims for legitimate collection for both reuse and, where

Via sustainable management of textiles, the vision is to create a competitive advantage, green jobs and environmental benefits in the Nordic region. The three textile reuse and recycling projects are part of the Nordic Prime Ministers' initiative, The NordicRegion, leading in green growth.

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Nordic Cooperation - Guidelines to increased collection of plastic packaging waste from households

The aim of the guidelines is to inspire, inform and give recommendations on how plastic packaging waste from households can be collected, and how different aspects concerning collection of plastic packaging can be taken into account without recommending a certain collection system in front of another. The aspects considered are: collected amounts, quality of the collected amounts, economic aspects, environmental impact, service level and communication, and flexibility. The guidelines are presented in a separate document and based on Nordic experience. The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers' green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth”. Read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth

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Nordic Cooperation: Collection & recycling of plastic waste - Improvements in existing collection and recycling systems in the Nordic countries

The first report from the project “Improvements in existing collection and recycling systems for plastic waste from households and other municipal waste sources” is focused on describing the existing situation when it comes to collection and recycling of plastic waste in the Nordic countries. The streams covered are (all from both households and other MSW sources):

• Plastic packaging waste.

• Non-packaging small plastic waste.

• Plastic bulky waste.

Similarities and differences among the Nordic countries are presented in the report. The findings provide input into the development of suggestions for improvements. The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers' green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth.” Read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth

The report for Part 2 was published in December 2014.

Published in 2014 by
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Nordic Cooperation: WEEE Plastics Recycling - A guide to enhancing the recovery of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment

The purpose of this guide is to inform and assist different stakeholders in the Nordic region to enhance the recycling of plastic materials from WEEE – Waste Electrical and Electronic Waste. It presents recommendations to various parties: consumers, authorities and policy-makers, recyclers and waste operators, as well as electronics producers.The guide was compiled as part of the Nordic Prime Ministers' initiative, The Nordic Region – leading in green growth. Read more at www.norden.org/greengrowth or in the web magazine Green Growth the Nordic Way at www.nordicway.org

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Nordic Cooperation - Plastic sorting at recycling centres Guidlines

This is a guideline for plastic sorting at recycling centres. The aim is to give assistance to the choices made by the management of recycling centres in order to collect plastic of better quality and in greater quantities. In the guideline, the potential plastic categories are listed and described, also with respect to potential content of hazardous substances. Issues to take into account when choosing how to organise the collection of plastic at the recycling centre are described. A separate chapter looks at how the public could be assisted with the sorting of plastics at the recycling centres.

The guideline is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers' overall green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth” - read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth

Published in 2014 by
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Nordic Cooperation: Date labelling in the Nordic countries: Practice of legislation

The report addresses how date labels are determined and applied with focus on reducing food waste in the Nordic countries. This was assessed through a survey and selected interviews with Nordic food manufacturers about their considerations when deciding the date label. Another objective has been to distinguish if there are differences in the way food safety authorities interpret legislation. The results from the study indicate that there are differences between the countries in terms of both the practice of guidelines and the shelf life of food.

The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers' overall green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth” – read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth

Published in 2014 by
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Sustainable Purchasing Leadership Council (SPLC)

This 1-page document provides a brief introduction to SPLC's Guidance for Leadership in Sustainable Purchasing.

About the SPLC
The Sustainable Purchasing Leadership Council (SPLC) is a charitable organization whose mission is to support and recognize purchasing leadership that accelerates the transition to a prosperous, socially just, and sustainable future.

Published in 2015 by
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10 YFP
Sustainable Public Procurement

Purchasing Category Analysis Tool Providers

Sustainability-related spend analysis pairs conventional spend analysis data with information about the related environmental, social, and economic performance of products and suppliers.

This documents provides useful information for purchasers looking for tools or services to assist them with conducting a sustainability-related spend analysis.

About the SPLC
The Sustainable Purchasing Leadership Council (SPLC) is a charitable organization whose mission is to support and recognize purchasing leadership that accelerates the transition to a prosperous, socially just, and sustainable future.

Published in 2015 by
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Sustainable Public Procurement

Green Growth in Practice: Lessons from Country Experience

The initiative has produced this volume, Green Growth in Practice: Lessons from Country Experiences, which documents and assesses a wide range of green growth experiences. It draws on the expertise of a broad range of policy makers, practitioners, researchers, international organizations, and development agencies from around the world.

We hope this report will become a valuable tool for experts, advisers and policymakers in pursing effective
green growth policies and practices and achieving climate compatible development, and so inspire readers to choose a more sustainable future for humanity.

Published in 2014 by
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Making Sense of the Minefield of Footprint Indicators

In recent years, footprint indicators have emerged as a popular
mode of reporting environmental performance. The prospect
is that these simplified metrics will guide investors, businesses,
public sector policymakers and even consumers of everyday
goods and services in making decisions which lead to better
environmental outcomes. However, without a common “DNA”,
the ever expanding lexicon of footprints lacks coherence and may
even report contradictory results for the same subject matter.

In the European Union, the proliferation of inconsistent
footprint methodologies has been identified as the underlying
issue hampering the functioning of a market for green products.5
The benefits of harmonization are many: reduced implementation
costs for business, avoidance of market access barriers, a common
basis for industry to seek out resource efficiency opportunities with
supply chain partners, and increased consumer understanding
and confidence that footprint communications are trustworthy.5
The solution we propose is the development of a coherent set of
footprint indicators based on LCA.

Published in 2015 by
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SMART PROCUREMENT: GOING GREEN: INTERNATIONAL COMPENDIUM OF BEST PRACTICES FOR GREEN PROCUREMENT

This compendium is part of the on-going OECD public procurement reform agenda, which includes a new Recommendation of the Council on Public Procurement, the identification of good practices in green public procurement (GPP), transparency and anti-corruption, peer reviews and the development of procurement performance indicators to support evidence-based decision-making.

The compendium includes case studies of GPP good practices reviewed by the Leading Practitioners on Public Procurement and the OECD-UNEP task force on promoting best GPP practices during 2013 and 2014.

The compendium incorporates valuable comments by countries, including lessons learnt in implementing GPP in a national and sub-national context. It was produced through the 10YFP SPP Programme working group 2C on Promoting Best Practices, for more information on the 10YFP SPP Programme please visit www.unep.org/10yfp/procurement

Published in 2015 by
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10 YFP
Sustainable Public Procurement

Public procurement and transformative solutions: A migration strategy for India’s procurement in the 21st century

This report is an outcome of thought leadership collaboration between stakeholders in India and Sweden that seeks to spur momentum to ensure innovative and global sustainable development through the mainstreaming of transformative solutions.

The collaboration is based on two national public procurement projects, one in India and one in Sweden. The objective is to explore ways that allow public procurement to deliver economic development, innovation, poverty reduction and global environmental sustainability by supporting transformative solutions.

As the key outcome of the work, a migration strategy has been developed that will enable, and support, a shift from current procurement to a procurement that supports transformative solutions. This strategy will help move focus from only incremental improvements (that are not enough and sometimes even destructive) to 21st century solutions that are truly sustainable from a global perspective. Such a strategy will also encourage increased transparency and cost efficiency in the procurement process.

Published in 2013 by
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Procurement at UNDP: Enabling development results

Driven by the growth of programme areas, procurement has become increasingly central to the achievement of development results. While UNDP addresses a number of climate change issues across its thematic focus areas, these problems cannot be tackled without making a shift to more sustainable production and consumption practices.

Sustainable procurement means making sure that the products and services UNDP buys are as sustainable as possible, with the lowest environmental impact and most positive social results. Procurement, therefore, plays a key role in contributing to sustainable development.

Published in 2012 by
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Sustainable Public Procurement

UNDP Practitioner’s Guide to Sustainable Procurement

As per its sustainable procurement policy, UNDP is committed to sustainable procurement and will maximize environmental, social and economic considerations in the procurement process wherever and whenever possible. Early inclusion of sustainable procurement at the project level procurement planning phase is crucial to ensure fairness, transparency and efficiency throughout the whole procurement process.

In this light, this document offers guidance on how to incorporate sustainable criteria into the diverse procurement process stages, i.e. Request for Proposal, Invitation to Bid and Terms of Reference, and how to evaluate proposals.

Published in 2011 by
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Running to Stand Still: Small-Scale Farmers and the Green Revolution in Malawi

This African Centre for Biosafety (ACB) report is based on field work conducted in Malawi, titled "Running to stand still: Small-scale farmers and the Green Revolution in Malawi." The research, conducted by the ACB in collaboration with the National Smallholder Farmers' Association of Malawi (NASFAM), Kusamala Institute of Agriculture and Ecology and Dr Blessings Chinsinga from the University of Malawi, does not validate the argument that Malawi is a Green Revolution success story. On the contrary, the research highlights the plight of small-scale farmers at the receiving end of the Green Revolution (GR) push in Malawi. Among its findings are that farmers are trapped in a cycle of debt and dependency on costly external inputs with limited long-term benefit, and that the natural resource base is being degraded and eroded despite – or perhaps because of - GR inputs.

Published in 2014 by
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Report on nudging as a tool for sustainable behaviour

In connection with a Government commission on measures for a sustainable consumption, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency mandated the International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE) at Lund University to conduct a research study on nudging. Nudging - a tool that can be used to promote behavior that is beneficial to individuals and to society as a whole.

In order to reduce environmental and health impacts to sustainable levels, our lifestyles and consumption patterns need to change. To facilitate these changes new policy measures and instruments are needed. Consumption is controlled by habits to a large extent and society could enable sustainable choices in various ways, for example by using different forms of nudging - to gently lead people in a desirable direction.

Published in 2014 by
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10 YFP
Sustainable Public Procurement

Sustainable Public Procurement Implementation Guidelines

Public spending, which represents between 15 % and 30% of GDP in a given country, can help drive markets towards innovation and sustainability, thereby enabling green growth and the transition to a green economy.

Sustainable Public Procurement (SPP) has been identified as one of the means to achieve sustainability and highlighted as a key “enabling condition” for a transition towards Green economy in UNEP's Green economy report. Through SPP, governments can lead by example and deliver key policy objectives in the environmental, social, and economic fields.

The present Guidelines incorporate all the lessons derived from the testing of the MTF (Marrakech Task Force) Approach to SPP that were collected during a revision process which ended in October 2011 and involved a large number of stakeholders in all pilot countries.

Available in:
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10 YFP
Sustainable Public Procurement

Policy Handbook for Sustainable Consumption and Production of Korea

The Policy Handbook for Sustainable Consumption and Production of Korea is comprised of two sections.
The first section is Policy Handbook, which is divided into three parts, namely Consumer Information; Sustainable
Consumption and Lifestyle; and Sustainable Business.

Each part contains various policy instruments with detailed
and practical guide elaborating basic concept, policy goals, legal basis, major milestones, working mechanism,
implementing procedure, strength, challenges, major outcomes and future plans for improvement of the policy. At the
end of each policy section, information documents and online website are listed for further reference for readers.

Part 1 incorporates Korea Eco-labeling, Carbon Footprint Labeling, Green Building Certification, and Green Store
Certification, which aim to provide information on environmental performances and/or eco-friendliness of
products, building and retail store so that consumers can make an informed decision.

Part 2 encompasses policy instruments and activities, including Green Public Procurement, Green Credit Card, and
ECO-EXPO KOREA, designed to stimulate and incentivize sustainable consumption and lifestyle.

Part 3 includes policy instruments and incentives such as Eco-Business Award, GREEN-UP, and Eco-Design Program
that promote sustainable business practices.

The second section, included in the extended version of the Policy Handbook, provides laws, regulations, and
guidelines that underpin the respective policies described in the Policy Handbook as follows:

Sustainable Consumption and Production in General
Act and Enforcement Decree on Promotion of Purchase of Green Products

Korea Eco-labeling
Operational Rule of the Korea Eco-labeling

Carbon Footprint Labeling
Guideline for Carbon Footprint of Products; Regulation on the Operational Procedure of Carbon Footprint Labeling

Green Building Certification
Act on Support for the Establishment of Green Buildings; Regulation on Green Building Certification

Green Credit Card
Guideline for the Operation of the Green Credit Card System

Green Store Certification
Regulation on Operational Process for Green Store Certification

Published in 2014 by
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10 YFP
Sustainable Public Procurement

Guidance for Leadership in Sustainable Purchasing

Guidance for Leadership in Sustainable Purchasing Version 1.0

The Guidance for Leadership in Sustainable Purchasing is intended to help organizations improve environmental, social, and economic performance within their supply chains by implementing a strategic sustainable purchasing program.

Organizations in a wide variety of sectors and regions can use this Guidance to understand the environmental, social, and economic life cycle impacts of their purchased goods and services, identify actions that best address these priorities, and benchmark progress toward goals.

About the SPLC
The Sustainable Purchasing Leadership Council (SPLC) is a charitable organization whose mission is to support and recognize purchasing leadership that accelerates the transition to a prosperous, socially just, and sustainable future.

Available in:
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10 YFP
Sustainable Public Procurement

Governmental Use of Voluntary Standards: Innovation in Sustainability Governance

The report aims to provide an overview of the models of governmental engagement in using voluntary standards. This study is based on ten country case studies that were developed through the “Governmental Use of Voluntary Standards” project, carried out by International Social and Environmental Accreditation and Labelling Alliance (ISEAL Alliance) in collaboration with the Trade Standards Practitioners' Network (TSPN) and with the support of the Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO), the World Bank and the Entwined research partnership.
According to the conclusions drawn by this paper, the governmental use of voluntary standards is characterised by diversity (governance, mission motivations for engagement, institutional arrangements and implementation mechanisms, policy outcomes) coupled with the evidence of its widespread use around the world (in countries with different levels of development). The voluntary standards have established themselves as effective, flexible tools to accompany and support governmental policy. However, for its further development a number of issues should be addressed: availability of information on the best practices, foster opportunities for shared learning, and strengthen credibility and accountability of voluntary standard systems.

Published in 2008 by
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10 YFP
Sustainable Public Procurement

BUEN APROVECHO - GUÍA PRÁCTICA PARA EL CONSUMIDOR: CÓMO REDUCIR EL DESPERDICIO ALIMENTARIO

Con objeto de informar sobre la urgente necesidad de prevenir y reducir este desperdicio de productos de primera necesidad, el Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio ambiente, ha elaborado esta “Guía práctica para el consumidor: Cómo reducir el desperdicio alimentario” que busca abordar de forma amena y constructiva la problemática actual y ofrece las claves para que cada ciudadano contribuya, desde sus hogares, a reducir los alimentos desechados.

Published in 2014 by
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Fostering Low-Emission Rural Development From the Ground UP

No Silver Bullets: Corporate and national government commitments to reduce deforestation are extremely difficult to implement on the ground. Governments, businesses, farmers, communities and civil society must be at the table to drive the transition to low-emission rural development (LED-R).

Many Jurisdictions Still Lack Performance Targets and Reference Levels: Acre and Mato Grosso, Brazil and Chiapas, Mexico are important exceptions.

Lack of Alignment Across Policies & Initiatives:
Many policies and initiatives that influence land- user decisions are still at odds with one another. Multi-stakeholder dialogues can broaden support for shared regional performance reference levels and milestones, especially if the incentives
for achieving those milestones are part of the discussion.

REDD Finance has Not Reached Most Jurisdictions: REDD finance has been slow to reach subnational jurisdictions, with important exceptions. Incentives for supporting LED-R must also be found in domestic policies and programs.

Performance-Based Incentives Could Play Critical Role: Be they financial, regulatory or contractual, these incentives systems can reward performance at the farm and jurisdictional level, pushing progress towards time-bound performance milestones.

Forest Monitoring Weak Outside of Brazil: Most nations have developed forest monitoring systems, but only Brazil makes reliable, annual maps of new deforestation available on the internet. Others could follow soon.

• Land Rights Advanced in Latin America and Progressing in Indonesia: Legal protection of indigenous and community rights to land is more advanced in Latin America. However, in Indonesia a recent Constitutional Court decision on customary land rights provides a foundation for progress. Border defense is usually still the communities' responsibility.

• Smallholders Neglected: Small-scale farmers are generally excluded from LED-R processes. With numerous small landholdings, usually without formal land titles, it is more difficult to include them in supply chain initiatives, support them through rural extension, or finance them through credit programs.

• Multi-Stakeholder Dialogues Patchy: Several regions have multi-stakeholder processes underway, while some are just beginning. Indigenous people and smallholders generally have less decision-making power than governments and private sector actors, such as large-scale farmers and financers.

Published in 2014 by
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Barking up the right tree? A scorecard of UK local authorities’ responsible wood and paper procuremen

This paper is addressing the problem of illegal logging* in the UK. The UK government is trying to tackle this illegal trade through the implementation of its commitments under the European Union's Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade (FLEGT) action plan, published in 2003. Implementation of Agenda 21, the UN's action plan that relates to sustainable development, among other drivers, encouraged local authorities to take steps to implement sustainable procurement policies. The recommendations of the paper are drawn from the study of UK's (England, Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland) timber procurement policies.
WWF's recommendations:
- Local authorities should make it a mandatory requirement that they have a legal and sustainable timber procurement policy.
- More training and awareness raising on timber product procurement policy is needed.
- Local authorities should make better use of existing procurement guidance mechanisms.
- Local authorities should help create a level playing field for the timber trade.

*Illegal logging occurs when timber is harvested, transported, processed, bought or sold in violation or circumvention of national or sub national laws.

Published in 2012 by
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Ending Global Deforestation: Policy Options for Consumer Countries

The report examines the extent to which the consumer-country measures used to exclude illegal timber from consumer markets could be applied to illegal or unsustainable agricultural commodities, with particular reference to palm oil, beef and leather, and cocoa.
According to the findings of this paper, governments should encourage and perhaps participate in further voluntary initiatives, such as the UK statement on sustainable palm oil, the US-led Tropical Forest Alliance or the Dutch Sustainable Trade Initiative. Among other regulatory options that might be effective when applied to agricultural commodities are the following: public procurement policies, regulatory requirements on companies, bilateral agreements to encourage sustainable agriculture, and creation of scope for encouraging garter due diligence on the part of financial institutions.
In general, all of the abovementioned regulatory options must rest on some form of identification system for sustainability produced commodities, which in most cases means certification. There is no point imposing consumer country controls on imports unless the producers can respond, so supporting measures to lower the cost and encourage the uptake of various certification systems, and to improve their robustness, should be implemented.

Published in 2013 by
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Labour Standards in Public Procurement. Background paper for DFID Labour Standards and Poverty Reduction Forum

This paper was produced for the DFID Labour Standards and Poverty Reduction Forum. It identifies various practical possibilities for incorporating support for labour standards within public procurement. These findings are based on OGC guidance and on existing action by government departments and the private sector initiatives.
Public procurement is governed by EU rules, principally the EU Treaty and EU Public Procurement Directive 2004 which are intended to assure free movement of goods and services and non-discrimination against contractors on grounds of nationality. However, in some cases, the possibility for including labour standards depends on circumstances and on how the process is undertaken, rather than there being a clear universal answer. There are varying interpretations of what is feasible under EU rules.
This paper also looks at opportunities beyond individual contractual relationships. Many organisations concerned with ethical trade are seeking to work collaboratively with suppliers and communities to deal with some or the fundamental issues leading to poor labour practices.
The opportunities to promote labour standards through public procurement, discussed in the paper include:
- Mapping the Supply Chain and Prioritising
- Promoting general support for labour standards
- Including labour standards in product specification
- Excluding contractors for labour standard violations
- Evaluating tenders using labour standard criteria
- Including labour standards performance in contract management conditions
- Monitoring contractual performance conditions
- Collaborative working

Published in 2007 by
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An assessment of the impacts of the UK Government’s timber procurement policy. Final Report

The aim of this research was to undertake an assessment of the impacts of the UK Government's timber procurement policy to date. The analysis focused on three key parts: the impact on trade and on sustainable forest management; the role of the UK Government as a leader in developing and harmonising timber procurement policies; and the role of CPET.
The overall aim of the UK Government's timber procurement policy (TPP) is to ensure that central government departments, their executive agencies and non-departmental public bodies only procure timber and wood-derived products originating from either legal and sustainable, or FLEGT licensed or equivalent sources. Local government is not mandated but is encouraged to adopt the policy.

Published in 2010 by
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LEED Adopters: Public Procurement and Private Certification

This paper empirically explores the interaction between local government procurement rules and private-sector adoption of green building practices. More specifically, it examines the diffusion of the US Green Building Council's LEED standard for sustainable building practices, and ask whether private-sector real estate developers are more likely to seek LEED certification in cities with a municipal green building policy that applies only to new public buildings (i.e., a green procurement policy).
The authors find that private sector LEED adoption is roughly 80 percent greater in municipalities with a green-building policy than in a matched control sample of cities of similar size and demographic characteristics. Further analysis reveals that there is more LEED adoption among “neighbour cities” that border a city that adopts a green building policy, compared to these neighbouring cities' own set of matched controls.
As a general conclusion, this paper provides evidence that public procurement policies can influence private sector purchasing decisions in a way that reinforces underlying policy goals. Given the relative scale of public and private purchasing, this may be a necessary condition for public procurement guidelines to have substantive impacts (e.g., on the scale of regulatory policy).

Published in 2011 by
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Sustainable Public Procurement in the Sao Paulo State Government: An in-depth case study

A growing number of developing and emerging countries are designing and implementing SPP programs, often in partnership with international development organizations and research institutes. As part of its research on SPP, the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) turned with interest to the experience of the Government of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil (the State Government).
The State Government has made significant strides in integrating sustainability into its public procurement processes, and, as such, serves as an important role model on how to use procurement to promote sustainable development. The present case study documents in detail the initiation and expansion of the Sao Paulo SPP program; explains how its promoters overcame legal, institutional, administrative, market and mindset hurdles at each stage; and assesses the legal, administrative and procedural improvements needed to expand the program further. This in-depth account of the Sao Paulo State experience can prove particularly useful to developing countries and subnational governments implementing or planning to implement SPP policies.
This paper reviews the lessons learned, identifying both challenges and opportunities to improve the SPP Programme internally and to make its successes a model exportable to other Brazilian states and to other developing countries.

Published in 2012 by
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10 YFP
Sustainable Public Procurement