EU Common Agricultural Policy – Greening 2015-2022
Greening was introduced in 2015 as a result of the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform. The term greening covers agricultural activities that are beneficial for the climate and the environment. Its primary objective is to increase the contribution of agricultural operators to the conservation of the environment and natural resources, which are also the basis of agriculture.
Greening is a combination of three different practices:
- Maintenance of permanent grasslands: areas classified as permanent grassland must be preserved. Plowing and conversion of Natura 2000 grasslands is prohibited.
- Crop diversification, diversification of crop production: farmers in arable land of more than 10 hectares have to grow at least two different crops on a given area in a given year, while those with more than 30 ha have to grow at least three types of crops. In the case of two crops, the crop grown on the largest area may occupy no more than 75% of the arable land, and in the case of three crops, the crop grown on the largest area may occupy no more than 75% of the arable land, the crops grown in the two largest areas together may not exceed 95% of the arable land.
- Designation of ecological focus areas (EFA): Farmers of arable land above 15 hectares must designate an ecological focus area corresponding to at least 5% of their arable land. Examples include fallow land, ecological secondary crop, tree line, wooded strip, or areas planted with nitrogen-fixing plants, but there are a variety of options (18 types in total) to choose from.
European Environment Agency